Regional Socio-Demographic Profile

Bangsamoro, officially the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM), is an autonomous region located in the Southern Philippines.

Replacing the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), the BARMM was formed with the ratification of its basic law, the Bangsamoro Organic Law following two-part legally-binding plebiscite in Western Mindanao held on January 21 and February 6, 2019. The ratification was confirmed a few days later on January 25 by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).

The establishment of Bangsamoro was the culmination of several years of peace talks between the Philippine government and several autonomist groups; in particular the Moro Islamic Liberation Front or MILF, which rejected the validity of the ARMM and called for the creation of a region with more powers devolved from the national government. A framework agreement known as the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was negotiated between the Aquino administration and the MILF in 2014. After continued negotiations and debates over certain provisions, the Congress of the Philippines created and ratified a basic law for the region, now referred to as the Bangsamoro Organic Law; the bill was signed into law by President Rodrigo Duterte on July 26, 2018. Despite questions on the region’s constitutionality, as it would have adopted a parliamentary system in an area of a country with a presidential system of government, no judicial ruling was made against the organic law and consequently the COMELEC held two-part plebiscite: one by ARMM citizens determining whether to dissolve the ARMM and immediately replace it with the Bangsamoro and, following the victory of the yes vote on the first part, and the second part taken by neighboring municipalities and barangays in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Cotabato regarding their cession to the Bangsamoro region. As a result of the second part of the plebiscite, 63 barangays of Cotabato province were handed over to the Bangsamoro government, adding to the autonomous region’s territory.

The Bangsamoro took the place of the ARMM as the only Muslim-majority autonomous region in the Philippines. Currently in transition until 2022, the Bangsamoro government has been considered a testing ground for the wider debate on constitutional reform and federalism in the Philippines.

QUICK STATS    
REGION BARMM    
VITAL STATISTICS 2019  
Infant Mortality Rate 129  
Maternal Mortality Ratio 65  
     
FAMILY PLANNING 2017  
TOTAL FERTILITY 31.1  
CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE 26.3  
UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING 17.8  
     
EDUCATION 2008 2013
BASIC LITERACY RATE (10 y/o and over) 81.5 86.1
FUNCTIONAL LITERACY RATE (10 – to 64 y) 71.6 72.6

 

AREA 2010 Census 2015 Census Population Growth Rate 2010-2015
REGION BARMM 3,256,140 3,781,387 2.89
BASILAN 293,322 346,579 3.23
LANAO DEL SUR 933,260 1,045,429 2.18
MAGUINDANAO 944,718 1,173,933 4.22
SULU 718,290 824,731 2.66
TAWI-TAWI 366,550 390,715 1.22